12 Different Types of Welding Processes [The Definitive Guide] - cruxweld (2022)

Do you start to learn the welding process?

Are you aware of distinct types of welding processes?

Now you need to have a synopsis about the different welding processes that exist. Some are easier while the other processes are difficult to master. Few welding processes produce a clean bead and require no or little cleaning, while others produce the exact opposite.

Welding is not only constructive but an art form as well.

Constructive applications affect your daily life positively as the car you drive, office, where you work, happens with welding only. Different metals require different forms of welding.

To simplify the subject, we have compiled key instructions regarding twelve different types of welding processes.

1. MIG – Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

MIG welding is a simple, popular form of welding, a novice can operate and master the art easily.

MIG stands for metal inert gas and sometimes may be called gas metal arc welding (GMAW). It is a semi automatic, quick process where filler wire fed through the gun and shielding gas expelled around to protect from environmental impurities. The filler wire fed on a spool to act as an electrode as well.

12 Different Types of Welding Processes [The Definitive Guide] - cruxweld (1)
(Video) Easy to understand submerged arc welding (SAW) process

The tip of the wire acts as an electrode to create the arc with base metal which melts as filler material to create the weld. The process is continuous and requires presetting of the parameters as per the welding need. The versatile process to weld an extensive list of metals which produces a clean, smooth, and visually appealing weld bead.

12 Different Types of Welding Processes [The Definitive Guide] - cruxweld (2)

These welding types are sensitive to external factors like rain, wind, and dust to make it not great for outdoor use. The quality problem with MIG welding includes dross and porosity to make the structure weak.

The commonest use of the MIG welding process is in automotive repair, construction, plumbing, robotics, and maritime industry. The welding offered is sturdy, strong, which can withstand enormous force.

2. Stick – Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)

These are century-old types of welding processes and improving regularly from time to time. It is popular welding because of its low cost, easy and simple operability. The process comes with spatter welding that needs clean up, essentially.

12 Different Types of Welding Processes [The Definitive Guide] - cruxweld (3)

The filler material here is a replaceable stick electrode. It generates the arc when the end of the stick contacts the base metals. The heat of the arc melts the electrodes filler metal to make the weld. It coats the stick electrode with a flux that creates a shielding cloud to protect the weld zone from oxidation. The flux on cooling changes into slag, which needs to chip off.

The bright side of the process is that it is possible to perform the process of stick welding in outdoor and adverse weather like wind and rain. As it is possible to weld on rusted, painted, and dirty metals so it is useful in equipment repair. The variety of electrodes available in the market, but none work for thin metals. It requires long learning before you master the stick welding.

3. TIG – Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)

TIG welding is possible with no filler material. The non-consumable tungsten electrode is used to create the arc when contacting the base metal. The strong arc melts the two metals and joins them. You may use filler wire if required. We need the constant supply of shielding gas to protect welding from the environmental impurities. It works better indoors and away from elements.

12 Different Types of Welding Processes [The Definitive Guide] - cruxweld (4)
(Video) MIG Welding Machine - A Complete Guide to Setup, Installation and Welding [CO2 वेल्डिंग क्या है ]

It is one the strong weld but difficult to master. Only an experienced welder can perform this art as they use both the hands in unison to perform the welding. The welding results are precise, strong, visually appealing, and require no cleanup. It is used to weld stainless steel, aluminum, magnesium, nickel, and copper with ease. The process is quite popular for industries that work on nonferrous metal as in tubing, bicycles, vehicle manufacturing. It is suitable to repair the tools made from aluminum, magnesium, and stainless steel.

What is TIG Welding?

4. Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW)

FCAW is similar to MIG welding, as the power source can perform both types of welding. MIG welding needs filler wire working as an electrode fed continuously from the gun. Conversely, FCAW has a wire with its core as flux and creates a gas shielding zone around the weld. No need for any external shielding gas in this welding type. The process is versatile and works for thick metals.

12 Different Types of Welding Processes [The Definitive Guide] - cruxweld (5)

The welding process is efficient and works well for heavy metals with high heat welding. No need for any external gas makes it a choice of welding at a lower cost. It is useful for thicker metal and used in heavy equipment repair. Before you get a beautiful clean weld, you need to do cleanup from the slag of flux. It is done with ease outdoors as it does not require the shielding gas.

5. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)

12 Different Types of Welding Processes [The Definitive Guide] - cruxweld (6)

Type of welding involves the covering of metal pieces, welding wire, arc, and welding joint by a blanket of flux. It makes the process safe as there are no emissions of welding fumes, strong arc lights, and flying slags. The flux barrier protects the human and robot whosoever is performing the welding. It is a faster process for the high production industries.

SAW produces strong weld with deep penetration, with minimal preparation quickly and efficiently. It protects the welder from UV light and infrared radiation because of the flux layer.

6. Gas Welding/Oxyacetylene Welding

12 Different Types of Welding Processes [The Definitive Guide] - cruxweld (7)

One of the hottest methods of welding at 3500 degrees celsius. The temperature of welding here reaches seven times hot as the biggest, hottest pizza oven. It generates heat when a mixture of fuel gases and oxygen passes in a torch. The process involves three types of flames: neutral flame, carburizing flame, and oxidizing flame.

The advantages of the welding process are many. It is portable because of pressurized gas filled in a handy steel cylinder. It is fairly easy to use, versatile for different sizes of metals. It is a very safe and economical option where a novice can perform easily.

(Video) How MIG welder works - How is the MIG welding machine installed -   Overview of the Cruxweld Welding

7. Thermit Welding

12 Different Types of Welding Processes [The Definitive Guide] - cruxweld (8)

When thermit (a mixture of aluminum powder and iron oxide) is ignited it leads to an exothermic reaction non-violent. The excessive heat melts the metal and pours at the needed joint surfaces. The liquid metal solidifies on cooling to create a solid welding joint.

It is a simple and fast method to join similar and dissimilar metal. This welding process does not need any power supply, only need is to heat the thermite at 1300 degrees celsius.

8. Forge Welding

What is welding? This is the oldest welding technique when we were questioning what welding is. This technique is answering for centuries. The metal here heated to a malleable state which hammered into the desired form and finally cooled to set in the shape.

The process came into mind while a blacksmith working on metal. It is not limited to these professionals only, but the forge welding happens to be a choice in the aerospace industry. The process needs a skilled user but a popular choice as there is no need for any filler metal.

9. Electron Beam Welding

Firing the ray of high-velocity electrons at the welding metal involves this type of welding. The energy from the electron transfers to the sheets to melt the welding metals, which can be joined and fused.

The type of welding is employed in multiple industries like automated automotive parts, and high-end aircraft engine industries. This can be a useful tool in aerospace components, bimetal saw blades, and transmission assemblies. It is a perfect choice to seal electrical components. The technique is good for dissimilar metals of various melting points and thermal conductivities. This welding method is good for thin and thick metal.

10. Atomic Hydrogen Welding

The welding process is replaced now by the MIG welding now in most indications. It is still a perfect choice for tungsten welding. This metal is heat resistant, but by this method, you can fuse without altering the metal when joining and welding them. They place the two metal tungsten electrodes in a hydrogen atmosphere. The hydrogen molecules in explosive heat can produce heat up to 3000 degrees celsius. The proper safety precautions like welder gloves, suits, goggles, helmets are essential.

11. Plasma Arc Welding

A newer technique developed in 1954 and similar to TIG welding. They pass the electrical current through an orifice of the nozzle protected by gases for the ultimate accuracy to weld a small area.It produces a narrow bead, pleasing weld, strong, and speedy welding.

The method used an extremely high temperature for a deep and stronger weld. The aircraft industry uses this technique, but not of any use for hobbyists and DIY users.

(Video) 𝐂𝐮𝐭 𝐦𝐞𝐭𝐚𝐥 𝐟𝐚𝐬𝐭 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐚𝐜𝐜𝐮𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐥𝐲 𝐰𝐢𝐭𝐡 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐠𝐚𝐬 𝐜𝐮𝐭𝐭𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝗺𝗮𝗰𝗵𝗶𝗻𝗲 - 𝐎𝐱𝐲/𝐀𝐜𝐞𝐭𝐲𝐥𝐞𝐧𝐞/𝐋𝐏𝐆 𝐆𝐚𝐬,𝗛-𝗯𝗲𝗮𝗺, 𝗮𝗻𝗴𝗹𝗲

12. Resistance Welding

12 Different Types of Welding Processes [The Definitive Guide] - cruxweld (9)

This is a thermoelectric process where electric resistance is employed to create heat, leading to a molten state of material to be joined. The efficient welding process which is pollution-free with minimum electricity consumption as well. It uses two electrodes in spot welding where the tip of the electrode produces heat and fusion on cooling. The following are the different types of welding.

  • Spot welding
  • Seam welding
  • Projection Welding
  • Flash butt welding

Finishing Words

We expect now, you have a basic understanding of the various types of welding. Few types are run by simple machines while others need expensive equipment. Some can be performed by DIYs and hobbyists without spending too much. Now is time to purchase a welder, check our guide to buy a welder.

Thank you for sparing time to read the article but your comment will help us to understand your need.

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FAQs

What are different welding processes? ›

The four main types of welding are: Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW/MIG), Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW/TIG), Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), and Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW).

What is welding in short answer? ›

Welding is a fabrication process whereby two or more parts are fused together by means of heat, pressure or both forming a join as the parts cool. Welding is usually used on metals and thermoplastics but can also be used on wood. The completed welded joint may be referred to as a weldment.

How many types of welding techniques are there? ›

There are four main types of arc welding processes. These are termed Stick Welding (SMAW), MIG Welding GMAW, TIG Welding GTAW and Flux Cored Arc Welding FCAW.

Which is the best welding process? ›

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (TIG) is probably the highest quality and most expensive of the arc welding processes. It is generally performed manually; however, there are some automatic applications. A good welder can deposit ½ pound of weld metal per hour at about 1-to-3-inches-per-minute travel.

What is welding process PDF? ›

Welding is a permanent joining process in which two pieces of metal join together to form one piece by heating the metals to their melting points. Additional metal, also called filler metal, is added during the heating process to help bond the two pieces together.

What are the 5 basic welding joints? ›

There are five basic welding joint types commonly used in the industry, according to the AWS:
  • Butt joint welding.
  • Tee joint welding.
  • Corner joint welding.
  • Lap joint welding.
  • Edge joint welding.
2 Sept 2020

What are the 3 main types of welding? ›

Three of the most common are Arc, MIG (Metal, Inert Gas) or GMAW (Gas, Metal Arc Welding), and TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding. In order to know which process is best for the particular job you're working on, here's what you should know about each of them. Arc welding is the oldest of these three welding processes.

What are the 5 types of welding machines? ›

10 Types of Welding Machines and Their Uses
Nr.Type of Welding Machine
2Gas Metal Arc Welding
3Flux-Cored Arc Welding
4Gas-Tungsten Arc Welding
5Energy Beam Welding
6 more rows

What is basic principle of welding? ›

Basic principles of welding. A weld can be defined as a coalescence of metals produced by heating to a suitable temperature with or without the application of pressure, and with or without the use of a filler material.

What is used for welding? ›

Welders use stainless steel, carbon steel, and low-carbon mild steel, depending on the project. Mild steel is especially ductile, which makes it easy to weld. The more carbon steel has, the more effort it takes to weld, though welding carbon steels still happens with the proper equipment and methods.

What is the importance of welding? ›

Welding is an essential component of many industries such as the automotive industry, the construction industry, the aviation industry, and more. Without this form of metal work, so many things, including many buildings, gates, and fences, small kitchen appliances, vehicles - and even space travel - would not exist.

What type of welding should I learn first? ›

MIG welding is generally the easiest type of welding for a beginner to learn. MIG welders use a feed wire that runs through the machine at a preselected speed. This makes the process relatively fast and produces consistent welds.

What is the strongest type of weld? ›

TIG welding is often considered the strongest weld since it produces extreme heat, and the slow cooling rate results in high tensile strength and ductility. MIG is also an excellent candidate for the strongest type of weld because it can create a strong joint.

What are welding symbols used for? ›

Weld symbols are used to indicate the welding processes used in metal joining operations, whether the weld is localized or “all around”, whether it is a shop or field weld, and the contour of welds.

What type of welding is most common? ›

Shielded metal arc welding, frequently referred to as stick welding, is a very common and popular method of welding. It is typically used in construction, steel fabrication, pipeline work and for repairing heavy equipment.

What is the fastest welding process? ›

MIG – Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

It is a quick process that involves the filler metal being fed through the wand, while gas is expelled around it to shield it from outside elements.

What welding is the hottest? ›

Gas Welding also Called Oxyacetylene Welding. This process uses a mixture of fuel gases and oxygen within a torch to get to the high temperatures that are required for this process. At its hottest, this process gets to nearly 3,500 degrees Celsius (6,332 degrees Fahrenheit).

What is arc welding process? ›

Arc welding is a type of welding process using an electric arc to create heat to melt and join metals. A power supply creates an electric arc between a consumable or non-consumable electrode and the base material using either direct (DC) or alternating (AC) currents.

What is TIG and MIG welding PDF? ›

TIG uses a non-consumable electrode, whereas MIG uses a consumable electrode. In TIG welding zone is shielded by Helium. Various gas mixtures used in TIG are argon, Helium, argon-helium, Argon H2 & Argon CO2. TIG and MIG are used in automatic manufacturing, shipbuilding, aircraft, and electrical engineering.

What is weld design? ›

Weld joint design geometry, dimensioning and preparation that takes into account the welding process to be used. Tolerances on Size of welds. Note: - If mechanized and robotic fabrication is considered, Welding-design should pay particular attention to set realistic joint tolerances, especially for sheet metal parts.

What is root gap in welding? ›

Root gap - the minimum distance between the ends of the elements to be welded which is measured during the assembly of the butt joint for welding. positioning and measurement taking. Lower the fillet arm 2 or the taper gauge 5 into the groove until they come into contact with the ends of the elements to be welded .

How do you test root gap in welding? ›

The Hi-Lo Welding Gauge by GAL GAGE Company - YouTube

What are the 3 types of MIG welding? ›

These transfer modes are Short Circuit, Globular, Spray Arc and Pulsed MIG. When MIG welding, a continuous solid wire electrode is fed through a welding gun along with shielding gas, normally an Argon mix.

Which is not a type of welding? ›

From the above options, Friction welding is not a conventional type of welding process.

What is the name of welding device? ›

These include the gas tungsten arc machines, TIG and gas metal arc welder, known as MIG welders.

What are the different types of welding rods? ›

The most common rods in welding are 7018, 7014, 6013, 6011, and 6010. Using a 7018 rod as an example, you can determine the tensile strength of the rod by the first two numbers. The numbers represent the pounds per square inch (psi) that the resulting weld can withstand.

What is stick welding called? ›

Stick welding also known as manual arc welding, manual electrode welding, manual metal arc welding or shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) is usually the first welding process that welders are taught during training.

What is a pressure welding? ›

Pressure welding uses friction or explosion to heat the joining section of metal workpieces and join them under pressure. The process is also called solid-state welding. Pressure welding is a generic term for welding methods that weld workpieces by applying mechanical pressure on the joining section (weld joint).

Which gas is used in welding? ›

Acetylene is the only fuel gas suitable for gas welding because of its favourable flame characteristics of both high temperature and high propagation rates. Other fuel gases, such as propane, propylene or natural gas, produce insufficient heat input for welding but are used for cutting, torch brazing and soldering.

Can a girl be a welder? ›

A new generation of women welders is rocking a male-dominated industry. A woman tig welder works in a production facility to repair a piece of equipment. In 2010, women made up just 4% of the welding workforce. Eight years later, that number that had only increased by 1%, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

How old is welding? ›

Welding can trace its historic development back to ancient times. The earliest examples of welding come from the Bronze Age. Small gold circular boxes were made by pressure welding lap joints together. It is estimated that these boxes were made more than 2,000 years ago.

Can you weld copper? ›

Copper and Copper alloys are important engineering materials because of their good electrical and thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance, metal-to-metal wear resistance and distinctive aesthetic appearance. Copper and most copper alloys can be joined by welding, brazing, and soldering.

Why do we need to study and learn welding? ›

Welding Processes

Learn the latest tools and processes to be knowledgeable and competitive in the industry. Your welding program should teach you processes, welds, and skills that are used in the real world, like oxy-fuel cutting, shielded metal arc welding and gas metal arc welding.

Why is welding safety important? ›

Without wearing the proper PPE (personal protective equipment), welders can experience a variety of physical hazards, including eye damage, cuts, burns or even crushed fingers and toes. These injuries should be taken seriously, as they can put a welder out of work in some cases.

How can you improve your welding skills? ›

How to Use: 10 ways to improve your welding
  1. Turn off the TV. ...
  2. Start clean, prep well. ...
  3. Test your welds. ...
  4. Weld thick material in multiple passes. ...
  5. Learn multiple welding processes. ...
  6. Select the right electrode and wire. ...
  7. Perfect your technique. ...
  8. Get an auto-darkening helmet.
10 Aug 2007

Can I teach myself to weld? ›

Most people can learn the fundamentals of welding on their own to make basic fabrications and do common repair work by researching content from reliable sources and a lot of practice. However, if you have professional intentions, you cannot reach a high skill level fast enough without the guidance of experts.

Is welding easy to learn? ›

For most people, welding is moderately to very difficult to learn how to do, as it's a hands-on skill that requires more than just reading. Furthermore, welding is very difficult to actually do for most people, because it takes years and years of practice, on top of learning how to do it.

Why do welders drink milk? ›

The milk theory is based on the belief that when welders drink milk, the calcium in the milk will “saturate the body” and prevent the body from absorbing toxic heavy metals that can be found in welding fumes, such as cadmium.

Is Stick stronger than MIG? ›

When done correctly, stick welding produces stronger joins than MIG welding.

What is stronger than welding? ›

Structural adhesives, when used with the right design, are as strong or stronger than welding. They can eliminate the labor and times costs associated with metal preparation and finishing operations and improving your manufacturing processes.

What temperature do you weld at? ›

Electric arcs are very hot, which is why arc welding is such as an effective welding process. While different metals require different temperatures, arc welding is usually performed with an arc temperature of roughly 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit.

What is Z in welding symbol? ›

On fillet welded joints made from both sides, a staggered weld can be shown by placing a 'Z' through the reference line ( Fig. 12).

How do you measure a weld? ›

Calculate the weld size, s, at each node on the intersecting edge of the terminated part: SS or DS groove welds: s = t. SS or DS 45 ° fillet welds: s = sqrt(2) × t.

What is weld pitch? ›

The pitch is the distance between centers of segments on one side of the joint. Intermittent fillet welds can be specified on both sides of a joint by placing a fillet weld symbol both below and above the reference line.

What are the 4 main types of welding? ›

4 Types of Welding Processes
  • Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW/MIG) This style of welding is also referred to as Metal Inert Gas (MIG). ...
  • Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW/TIG) ...
  • Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) ...
  • Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
3 Jun 2021

What are the 3 common welding processes? ›

Three of the most common are Arc, MIG (Metal, Inert Gas) or GMAW (Gas, Metal Arc Welding), and TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding. In order to know which process is best for the particular job you're working on, here's what you should know about each of them. Arc welding is the oldest of these three welding processes.

What are the 5 types of weld? ›

There are five basic welding joint types commonly used in the industry, according to the AWS:
  • Butt joint welding.
  • Tee joint welding.
  • Corner joint welding.
  • Lap joint welding.
  • Edge joint welding.
2 Sept 2020

What is difference between TIG and MIG? ›

MIG uses a solid wire that is machine-fed to the weld area while TIG uses a non-consumable electrode and a hand-held filler rod to form the weld. These differences mean that MIG and TIG welding processes have their own advantages and disadvantages and preferred applications.

How many types of welding are there PDF? ›

The welding Process is broadly classified into three types: Fusion Welding. Non-Fusion Welding. Resistance Welding.

What are the 5 welding essentials? ›

ESSENTIALS FOR PROPER WELDING PROCEDURES
  • Correct electrode size.
  • Correct current.
  • Correct arc length or voltage.
  • Correct travel speed.
  • Correct electrode angle.

What is the most common type of welding? ›

1. SMAW: Shielded Metal Arc Welding. Shielded metal arc welding, frequently referred to as stick welding, is a very common and popular method of welding. It is typically used in construction, steel fabrication, pipeline work and for repairing heavy equipment.

How does welding process work? ›

Welding works by joining two materials together without a separate binder material. Unlike brazing and soldering, which use a binder that has a lower melting point, welding joins the two workpieces directly together.

What is the fastest welding process? ›

MIG – Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

It is a quick process that involves the filler metal being fed through the wand, while gas is expelled around it to shield it from outside elements.

What are the three 3 types of fillet joints? ›

Fillet welded joints such as 'T', lap and corner joints are the most common connection in welded fabrication.

What is weld design? ›

Weld joint design geometry, dimensioning and preparation that takes into account the welding process to be used. Tolerances on Size of welds. Note: - If mechanized and robotic fabrication is considered, Welding-design should pay particular attention to set realistic joint tolerances, especially for sheet metal parts.

Can you TIG weld without gas? ›

Simply put, NO, you can't Tig weld without Gas! Gas is required to protect both the Tungsten Electrode and the weld pool from Oxygen. Most Tig Welder torches are also cooled by the gas, so not using gas would risk burning out the Torch.

What gas is used for TIG welding? ›

As mentioned above, the gases used for TIG welding include Pure Argon, Helium and Hydrogen. Argon is the most commonly used inert gas for the TIG welding process. This is a top pick amongst welders because it can be used on metals such as mild steel, stainless steel and aluminum.

What is the full name of TIG welding? ›

TIG—i.e., tungsten inert gas—welding is highly versatile, enabling industry professionals to join a wide range of small and thin materials. It uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to heat the metal and can be used with or without a filler.

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