Different Types of Gas Welding Flames: Neutral, Carburizing, and Oxidizing [Notes with PDF] | Learn Mechanical (2022)

Contents

What is a welding flame?

Gas welding is the process of welding two metals together using a flame, which is generated by the burning of gases with oxygen. The flames generated during the process of gas welding are known as welding flames. Filler metal may or may not be used in the process of gas welding. Gas welding is an economical and effective welding method that is used widely.

Different gases used in the generation of flame:

The flame generated during the gas welding process is due to the mixture of fuel gas with oxygen. The fuel gases used can be acetylene, propane, butane, hydrogen, or natural gas.

Out of these gases, acetylene is the most widely used fuel gas used for the production of welding flame. The gas mixture used for producing welding flame is called oxyacetylene flame.

(Video) types of flames | types of flames in gas welding | types of welding flames | gas welding

Oxyacetylene welding was first developed in 1903, by two French engineers Edmond Fouché and Charles Picard.

During the early 20th century before the development of Arc welding, oxyacetylene gas welding was the only method for welding steel. It was an effective and economical process for welding during that period.

Characteristics of oxyacetylene flame:

The oxyacetylene flame temperature is much higher than other flames. For example, the oxyacetylene flame temperature is 3500oC. On the other hand, the flame temperature of the oxyhydrogen flame is 3000oC.

It is used for welding ferrous and non-ferrous metals and can weld metals up to 6 mm in thickness. Also used to weld materials with low Melting points.

Oxygen is used for burning action with acetylene as a fuel.It provides a better medium for combustion than air. This is because the thermal efficiency of oxygen is more than that of air.

Oxygen also provides better-quality weld and higher welding speed.

(Video) Types of Flames in Welding Hindi | Neutral Flame | Oxidizing Flame | Carbonizing Flame

Production and supply of oxygen and acetylene:

There are 2 methods of producing oxygen: by electrolysis of water or by liquefaction of air.

By Electrolysis the water breaks into oxygen and hydrogen by passing a current through it.

Condensation of air is considered to be a better process for producing oxygen. Oxygen is stored in steel tanks compressed to a pressure of 15MPa at 20oC.

About 7m3 of oxygen is stored in a cylindrical tank having a height of 1.3m and a diameter of 0.23m.

Acetylene is an endothermic compound that absorbs heat during production and gives out heat during decomposition.

Commercial production of acetylene is done by mixing water with calcium carbide CaC2. Acetylene is an explosive compound hence its storage must be safe and secured.

(Video) Welding | Gas Welding |Oxy-acetylene Welding| Neutral flame | Carburising flame | Oxidising flame |

It is stored in a steel cylinder containing emulsion of charcoal and some other substances, to provide a porous medium. Acetone is used as a solvent for storing acetylene because of its nature to absorb acetylene.

Acetylene cylinders contain up to 9m3 of acetylene compressed to 1.7MPa at 20oC.

Now come to welding flame types and zones:

Three basic types of oxyacetylene flames are used in commercial welding processes. These flames not only differ in chemical nature but also differ in appearance. All three flames consist of 3 zones.

  1. The inner luminous zone, where hot oxygen and acetylene mix physically.
  2. The intermediate zone
  3. The outer zone where the secondary combustion of the mixture takes place.

Three Types of Welding flames:

There are the following three types of Gas Welding Flames:

  1. Neutral or balanced flame
  2. Reducing or carburizing flame and
  3. Oxidizing flame.

#1. Neutral or Balanced flame:

  • A neutral flame is produced by the burning of approximately equal amounts of oxygen and acetylene.
  • The oxygen to acetylene ratio is around 1.1 to 1.0.
  • A neutral flame is a well-defined flame that is most widely used for welding purposes.
  • The inner luminous cone slightly rounds off at the ends.The temperature of the inner luminous cone is about 3250oC.
  • It is difficult to distinguish between the inner zone and the intermediate zone.The intermediate zone has a temperature of about 2100oC.
  • The outer zone is neutral in nature and is non-hazardous.The temperature of the outer zone is nearly 1300oC.
  • The amount of smoke produced is very low with a soft hissing noise.
  • The quality of the weld produced by neutral flame is excellent and the chemistry of the workpiece is also not distributed.
  • Materials for which a neutral flame can be used are copper, cast iron, aluminum, mild steel, and stainless steel.
Different Types of Gas Welding Flames: Neutral, Carburizing, and Oxidizing [Notes with PDF] | Learn Mechanical (1)
(Video) Differences Between Carburizing or reducing Flame and Oxidising Flame

#2. Reducing or Carburizing flame:

  • The oxyacetylene flame obtained when excess or acetylene is burnt is called reducing or carburizing flame.
  • Oxygen to acetylene ratio in case of reducing flame varies from 0.85 to 0.95.
  • The acetylene is burnt with atmospheric oxygen which results in a bigger flame size.
  • The inner luminous cone is not well defined, and same is the case with the intermediate zone.The flame temperatures of the innermost and intermediate zones are 2900oC and 2500oC respectively.
  • The outermost zone may carry some soot due to improper burning of acetylene.The temperature of the outermost zone is 1275oC.
  • If more amount of acetylene is supplied then it turns the flame to carburizing from reducing, and this contains carbon deposits.
  • These flames are used for welding where reducing the nature of the flame is taken as an advantage.
  • These flames are capable of welding nickel, alloys of steel, and various nonferrous metals.
  • Reducing the flames may increase the welding rate but, as soon as the carbon percentage increases, the rate of welding decreases due to a decrease in the temperature of the flame.
  • The amount of smoke produced is high with the absence of noise.
  • Materials for which a reducing flame can be used are carbon steel, aluminum alloys, lead, and oxygen-free copper.
Different Types of Gas Welding Flames: Neutral, Carburizing, and Oxidizing [Notes with PDF] | Learn Mechanical (2)

#3. Oxidizing flame:

  • An Oxidizing oxyacetylene flame is produced when more oxygen is burnt with less amount of acetylene.
  • The oxygen to acetylene ratio in the case of Oxidizing flame is 1.15 to 1.5.
  • The inner luminous cone becomes small and sharp having a temperature of about 3500oC.The intermediate zone is not defined properly but has a temperature of 2100oC.
  • The intermediate zone also contains some remains of free oxygen traveling to the envelope.
  • High level of oxidation results in a short envelope or the outermost zone having a temperature of about 1275oC.
  • Oxidizing flame is the hottest among all oxyacetylene flames and is used in places where very high temperature is of great concern.
  • It is not only used for cutting but can be used for cutting operations by flame. This is known as oxyacetylene cutting.
  • Oxidizing flame is used for welding nonferrous metals like brass and copper.
  • Welds made can withstand high temperatures after being settled.
  • The flame production is noisy but no smoke is produced during the process.
  • Oxidizing flame can be used for materials such as brass, bronze, cast iron, zinc, and manganese steel.
Different Types of Gas Welding Flames: Neutral, Carburizing, and Oxidizing [Notes with PDF] | Learn Mechanical (3)

Table of comparison:

CharacteristicsNeutral flameReducing flameOxidizing flame
Inner temp in oC3250 approx2900 approx3500 approx
Intermediate temp oC2100 approx2500 approx2100 approx
Outermost temp in oC1300 approx1275 approx1275 approx
NoiseHissing noiseNo noiseVery noisy
Flame sizeMediumHighLow

Advantages of Oxyacetylene flames:

The following advantages are:

  • Various metals: Almost all the commercial metals can be welded using oxyacetylene flames. The temperature obtained by burning oxyacetylene gas is high enough to melt any commercial metal and form a weld.
  • Cost-efficient: The cost of equipment used for producing oxyacetylene flame is low. The cost of running is also quite low.
  • High welding speed: The speed of welding in the case of oxyacetylene welding is high. High-speed results in an increased production rate in many industries.
  • Easy to learn: Handling oxyacetylene flame is very easy. The operator can easily control the amount of oxygen and acetylene in the flame. The welding operation performed using oxyacetylene flame is also not complex.
  • Multiple operations: Besides welding operations, cutting operations can also be performed using an oxyacetylene flame. Cutting operations can be achieved by narrowing down the cross-section of the flame.
  • Portable: The equipment used for the production of oxyacetylene flames is more portable than many other welding equipments. This provides an advantage to oxyacetylene welding over other welding processes.
  • No electricity required: One of the major advantages of oxyacetylene flame operations is that it does not require any electricity to operate. This makes oxyacetylene flame operations suitable for remote places where there is no electric supply.

Disadvantages of oxyacetylene welding flames:

The following disadvantages include:

  • Surface finish: The surface finish obtained after welding is not great. Oxyacetylene welding promotes the generation of rough surfaces after welding.
  • More heat-affected zones: A large amount of heat is produced while performing any operation using an oxyacetylene flame. The heat produced is not concentrated at a single point. This results in the generation of thermal cracks and thermal stress development on the workpiece.
  • Not suitable for thick materials: One of the disadvantages of oxyacetylene welding flame is that it cannot weld very thick materials as it cannot heat very thick cross-sections.
  • Slow cooling rate: Cooling is an important stage after the welding is done. Workpieces are not converted to a finished product until the weld is cooled. In the case of oxyacetylene welding, the cooling rate is quite low. This may affect the production rate of the plant.

Applications of oxyacetylene welding flames:

Here is some application:

  • The major application of oxyacetylene flame is for repair work. Most of the welding done to repair a certain part in any industry is done using an oxyacetylene flame.
  • Oxyacetylene flames are used for welding purposes in many industries such as aircraft, automobile, and marine industries.
  • Due to its ability to join two or more dissimilar metals, oxyacetylene welding is used for the fabrication of various metals.
  • Oxyacetylene flames are also used for silver soldering different metals.
  • Besides joining operations oxyacetylene flames are also used for cutting large plates and large pieces of metals.

This is all about Welding Flames and its type. Let me know in the comment section if you have any doubts regarding this session. I will get back to you within 24 hours.

(Video) Oxidizing Flame

So this is all about Welding Flames, I hope you enjoyed this article. I also wrote articles on some other welding processes do check out those too. And moreover do not forget to share the article on your favorite social platform.

More Resources:

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Media Credits:

  • Image:By Author- Design Team Learn Mechanical
  • Feature Image:Modified by Author
  • Video: WeldingProjects

References:

FAQs

What are the different types of gas welding flames? ›

There are three types of flames natural flame, carburizing flame and oxidizing flame. Natural flame has synchronized mixture of fuel and oxygen, carburizing flame has more fuel and oxidizing flame has more oxygen. Different material used different flames according to weld condition.

What is the difference between a neutral oxidizing and carburizing flame? ›

A carburizing flame will produce iron carbide, causing a chemical change in steel and iron. For this reason a carburizing flame is not used on metals that absorb carbon. An oxidizing flame is hotter than a neutral flame and is often used on copper and zinc.

What is carburizing flame in gas welding? ›

A reducing oxyfuel gas flame in which there is an excess of fuel gas, resulting in a carbon rich zone extending around and beyond the cone. A carburizing flame is used in hardfacing and similar processes to obtain fusion between base metal and weld metal without deep melting of the base metal.

How many types of gas flame are there? ›

There are three types of flame natural flame, carburizing flame, and oxidizing flame. The natural flame has a coordinated mixture of fuel and oxygen, the carburizing flame contains more fuel, and the oxidized flame contains more oxygen.

What is gas flame? ›

variable noun. A flame is a hot bright stream of burning gas that comes from something that is burning.

What is gas welding in mechanical engineering? ›

Gas welding in which a carburizing flame is used to melt the surface of the parent metal, which then unites with the metal from a suitable filler rod.

How many types of gas welding are used? ›

The Top 9 Types of Welding Gases Used for Shielding

The first two shielding gases, argon, and helium, are inert, while the other four—hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen—are semi-inert.

What is gas welding explain? ›

Gas Welding • Gas welding is a welding process that melts and joins metals by heating them with a flame caused by a reaction of fuel gas and oxygen. • The most commonly used method is Oxyacetylene welding, due to its high flame temperature. • The flux may be used to deoxidize and cleanse the weld metal.

What is meant by neutral flame? ›

Definition of neutral flame

: a flame resulting from the burning of gases supplied in the proper proportions for perfect combustion (as approximately equal volumes of acetylene and oxygen)

What is a neutral flame in welding? ›

An oxyfuel gas flame that is neither oxidizing nor reducing. It is a quiet and clean flame obtained by burning approximately 50% acetylene and 50% oxygen. See also Carburizing Flame, Oxidizing Flame, Reducing Flame and Oxyfuel Gas Welding.

What are neutral reducing and oxidizing flames? ›

The key difference between oxidizing and reducing flame is that oxidizing flames are produced in the presence of an excessive amount of oxygen, whereas reducing flames are produced in the presence of a low level of oxygen. Oxidizing flames can oxidize metal surfaces while reducing flames can reduce molten metal.

What is meant by oxidizing flame? ›

Definition of oxidizing flame

: a flame or the part of a flame having an excess of oxygen (as the outer cone of a gas flame)

What is the use of oxidizing flame? ›

Oxidising flames resulting from an excess of oxygen are sometimes used for welding metals containing a high proportion of zinc where the effect is to suppress to some extent the vaporisation of the zinc.

What is the Colour of neutral flame? ›

A flame with a good oxygen-fuel ratio is called a neutral flame. The color of the flame is semi-transparent purple or blue. This flame is optimal for all intentions, because it does not oxidize or get soot onto surfaces.

What is a carburizing flame caused by? ›

A carburizing flame is produced when there is an excess of acetylene gas for the amount of oxygen being consumed in an oxy-acetylene mixture, producing an acetylene-rich gas. This kind of flame is used for welding materials that do not absorb carbon. A carburizing flame is also known as a reducing flame.

Which flame is hottest in gas welding? ›

Oxidizing flames also produce a distinct hissing sound as you open the oxygen valve. When adjusted properly, the inner cone can reach 6300 degrees Fahrenheit, making the oxidizing flame the hottest flame for gas welding.

What is the temperature of gas welding? ›

Oxyacetylene welding, commonly referred to as gas welding, is a process which relies on combustion of oxygen and acetylene. When mixed together in correct proportions within a hand-held torch or blowpipe, a relatively hot flame is produced with a temperature of about 3,200 deg. C.

What is the temperature of gas flame? ›

If you look up the flame temperature of natural gas in air, you'll probably find a value between 3,400 and 3,600°F (1,871 and 1,982°C).

Why gas flame is red? ›

Red or yellow flames means there could be a problem, such as incomplete combustion. This color is caused by very fine soot particles produced by the flame, which burns at nearly half the temperature it is supposed to.

Why gas flame is yellow? ›

A yellow or red flames on gas stove is dangerous, as it is indicative of incomplete combustion and carbon monoxide (CO) generation. A gas cooker yellow flame is a dangerous safety problem, if it occurs with an indoor appliance like a gas stove. You could also be wasting gas.

What are the main parts of gas welding? ›

Essential equipment components
  • torch body (or handle)
  • two separate gas tubes (through the handle connected to the hoses)
  • separate control valves.
  • mixer chamber.
  • flame tube.
  • welding tip.

What is welding process PDF? ›

Welding is a permanent joining process in which two pieces of metal join together to form one piece by heating the metals to their melting points. Additional metal, also called filler metal, is added during the heating process to help bond the two pieces together.

Why is gas used in welding? ›

As a requirement of welding with a solid, gas-shielded flux-cored or metal-cored wire, the primary purpose of shielding gas is to protect the molten weld pool against elements in the atmosphere, such as nitrogen and hydrogen.

How many types of welding are there? ›

The four main types of welding are: Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW/MIG), Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW/TIG), Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), and Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW).

What gas is used for MIG? ›

Carbon Dioxide

It's used frequently in MIG welding, often on its own (100% CO2), or as a small percentage of a helium or argon gas mix. A 75/25 MIG Argon and CO2 mix is the most popular gas for MIG welding sales, making up more than 90% of the gas we sell at Vern Lewis Welding Supply.

What is a gas welder called? ›

Oxy-fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene welding, oxy welding, or gas welding in the United States) and oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases (or liquid fuels such as gasoline or petrol, diesel, bio diesel, kerosene, etc) and oxygen to weld or cut metals.

What is the most common gas used in welding? ›

The most common of the reactive gases used in MIG welding is Carbon Dioxide (CO2). It is the only one that can be used in its pure form without the addition of an inert gas. CO2 is also the least expensive of the common shielding gases, making it an attractive choice when material costs are the main priority.

What is CO2 welding process? ›

Metal arc welding in which the consumable electrode is fed into the arc at a constant speed with a high current density, any alteration in arc length being corrected by naturally occurring changes in the burn-off rate.

What is gas welding and its equipment? ›

The apparatus used in gas welding consists basically of an oxygen source and a fuel gas source (usually cylinders), two pressure regulators and two flexible hoses (one of each for each cylinder), and a torch. The cylinders are often carried in a special wheeled trolley.

How hot is a neutral flame? ›

Table of comparison:
CharacteristicsNeutral flameReducing flame
Inner temp in oC3250 approx2900 approx
Intermediate temp oC2100 approx2500 approx
Outermost temp in oC1300 approx1275 approx
NoiseHissing noiseNo noise
1 more row

What is the difference between combustion and flame? ›

What is the difference between combustion and flame?
...
CombustionFlame
1. Combustion is a chemical reaction of carbon-based material with oxygen.Flame is the visible part of the fire
2 more rows

What is the ratio of carburizing flame? ›

Carburizing Flame:

​The carburizing flame has a 0.85:0.95 ratio of oxygen and acetylene by volume.

What is difference between TIG and MIG? ›

MIG uses a solid wire that is machine-fed to the weld area while TIG uses a non-consumable electrode and a hand-held filler rod to form the weld. These differences mean that MIG and TIG welding processes have their own advantages and disadvantages and preferred applications.

How many zones are in carburizing flame? ›

This flame has 3 zones i.e. bright luminous inner zone, acetylene feather and outer blue envelope.

What are the different fire colors? ›

Generally, the color of a flame may be red, orange, blue, yellow, or white, and is dominated by blackbody radiation from soot and steam.

What are the characteristics of flame? ›

Fire characteristics include flame height, fire intensity, season, frequency, flame angle, flame depth and scorch height. Flame height is measured vertically from ground level to the flame tip. Flame height is determined by vegetation height, fuel moisture and wind speed.

What is oxidizing zone? ›

An oxidation zone is part of a metalliferous deposit situated below the water table. In this zone the primary ore is highly weathered by rainwater, leading to the formation of secondary oxide , hydroxide, carbonate, sulphate, arsenate, native metal enrichments etc.., which can be economically workable (e.g. gossan).

What's the difference between oxidizing and reducing? ›

Figure 1: A reducing agent reduces other substances and loses electrons; therefore, its oxidation state increases. An oxidizing agent oxidizes other substances and gains electrons; therefore, its oxidation state decreases.

Which flame is used for steel welding? ›

A neutral flame is used to weld most of the common metals i.e. mild steel, cast iron, stainless steel, copper and aluminium. The oxidising flame is formed with excessive oxygen.

What color fire is the hottest? ›

The hottest part of the flame is the base, so this typically burns with a different colour to the outer edges or the rest of the flame body. Blue flames are the hottest, followed by white. After that, yellow, orange and red are the common colours you'll see in most fires.

Why do we need blue flame? ›

A blue gas flame colour means complete combustion. This indicates that the gas is being burned efficiently without any unburned and wasted gas. With complete combustion you get the maximum heat output from your gas and use less gas to generate heat with whatever appliance you are using.

Which flame is hottest in gas welding? ›

Oxidizing flames also produce a distinct hissing sound as you open the oxygen valve. When adjusted properly, the inner cone can reach 6300 degrees Fahrenheit, making the oxidizing flame the hottest flame for gas welding.

What are the different fire colors? ›

Generally, the color of a flame may be red, orange, blue, yellow, or white, and is dominated by blackbody radiation from soot and steam.

What are the types of oxy acetylene flame? ›

ADVERTISEMENTS: There are three basic types of oxy-acetylene flames viz., carburising or reducing flame, neutral or balanced flame and an oxidising flame.

What are the different flames produced in oxy acetylene gas welding? ›

There are three different types of flames in gas welding, neutral, carburizing, and oxidizing. The welder can adjust the oxyacetylene flame by adding more or less oxygen to the acetylene flame based on the job requirement.

What is the Colour of neutral flame? ›

A flame with a good oxygen-fuel ratio is called a neutral flame. The color of the flame is semi-transparent purple or blue. This flame is optimal for all intentions, because it does not oxidize or get soot onto surfaces.

What is the Colour of oxidizing flame? ›

Oxidizing flame is the burner flame that is produced in the presence of an excessive amount of oxygen gas. When there is an excessive amount of oxygen gas around the burner, the burner produces a shortened flame. This short flame also has a dark colour.

What is the temperature of gas welding? ›

Oxyacetylene welding, commonly referred to as gas welding, is a process which relies on combustion of oxygen and acetylene. When mixed together in correct proportions within a hand-held torch or blowpipe, a relatively hot flame is produced with a temperature of about 3,200 deg. C.

What is the temperature of fire? ›

Deep red fire is about 600-800° Celsius (1112-1800° Fahrenheit), orange-yellow is around 1100° Celsius (2012° Fahrenheit), and a white flame is hotter still, ranging from 1300-1500 Celsius (2400-2700° Fahrenheit). A blue flame is the hottest one of all, ranging from 1400-1650° Celsius (2600-3000° Fahrenheit).

Which fire is hotter? ›

Blue flames are the hottest, followed by white. After that, yellow, orange and red are the common colours you'll see in most fires. It's interesting to note that, despite the common use of blue as a cold colour, and red as a hot colour – as they are on taps, for instance – it's the opposite for fire.

Why gas flame is red? ›

Red or yellow flames means there could be a problem, such as incomplete combustion. This color is caused by very fine soot particles produced by the flame, which burns at nearly half the temperature it is supposed to.

What is neutral flame used for? ›

A Neutral Oxy Acetylene Flame is used for Welding, Brazing and Silver Soldering most metals and is therefore the most common type of flame to use. A Neutral Flame is also used for Oxy Acetylene Cutting.

What is meant by neutral flame? ›

Definition of neutral flame

: a flame resulting from the burning of gases supplied in the proper proportions for perfect combustion (as approximately equal volumes of acetylene and oxygen)

What is neutral flame in gas welding? ›

An oxyfuel gas flame that is neither oxidizing nor reducing. It is a quiet and clean flame obtained by burning approximately 50% acetylene and 50% oxygen. See also Carburizing Flame, Oxidizing Flame, Reducing Flame and Oxyfuel Gas Welding.

What is a carburizing flame caused by? ›

A carburizing flame is produced when there is an excess of acetylene gas for the amount of oxygen being consumed in an oxy-acetylene mixture, producing an acetylene-rich gas. This kind of flame is used for welding materials that do not absorb carbon. A carburizing flame is also known as a reducing flame.

What is the use of oxidising flame? ›

Oxidising flames resulting from an excess of oxygen are sometimes used for welding metals containing a high proportion of zinc where the effect is to suppress to some extent the vaporisation of the zinc.

How many zones are in carburizing flame? ›

This flame has 3 zones i.e. bright luminous inner zone, acetylene feather and outer blue envelope.

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